Recent publications

My latest publications are the following:



  • Towards a single standard of professional secrecy for supervisory authorities – A reform proposal, co-authored with Nikolai Badenhoop, at:, published in: (2019) 44 E.L. Rev. 295-318.
  •  A National Measure Annulled by the European Court of Justice, or: High-level Judicial Protection for Independent Central Bankers: ECJ 26 February 2019, Cases C-202/18, Ilmārs Rimšēvičs v Republic of Latvia, and C-238/18 European Central Bank v Republic of Latvia, ECLI:EU:C:2019:139, DOI:
  • In September 2019, I presented a paper on The ECB and the rule of law at the ECB Legal Conference 2019, published in the conference’s proceedings: Building bridges: central banking law in an interconnected world, ECB Legal Conference 2019, pp. 350-383. Before turning my attention to independent review of ECB decisions in its various areas of competence, I recalled the history of the ECB’s headquarters which encloses a space  of ‘the most horrible violations of the rule of law’: from here, the Nazi regime sent Jewish citizens to their deaths. Beyond a Memorial which can be visited with special arrangements, I plead for a commemorative plaque at the entrance of the building as a reminder of the atrocities committed against European minorities only eight decades ago.


  • John Taylor and I wrote about bank holding regulation in three African jurisdictions (four, if one includes the passage devoted to the BCEAO’s prudential rules): Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa, comparing their rules to those applying in the US and the EU, and calling for pan-African regulation on the matter: Bank Holding Company Regulation in Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Comparative Inventory and a Call for Pan-African Regulation, in Journal of Banking Regulation, July 2017, pp. 1-36, at: and at SSRN. A pdf is attached.